Thursday, April 21, 2016

The Doomsday Expedition - Part 1

by Kim Cobb

Every once in a while, the universe reminds you that you are small. Very small.

Several weeks ago, my students and I set out on what was supposed to be a 7-day expedition to Christmas Island, a remote island in the central equatorial Pacific, to document the effects of the current El Niño event on the coral reef there. We could not have known that we would face major ordeal after major ordeal, all while confronting a mass mortality event of staggering proportions on the island’s pristine coral reefs.

The mission’s goals were simple enough:  to revisit sites that we’ve been monitoring for the last two years, service temperature and salinity logging devices, and drill some coral cores that span the bulk of the 2015/2016 El Niño event.

We joined a team from Julia Baum’s lab, who had been diving intensively for two weeks prior to our arrival, taking detailed photographs of the reef and collecting tissue samples from any survivors. The goal of their work is to decipher the recipe for coral resilience to extreme temperature stress, in order to aid the reefs of tomorrow weather future such extremes.

We landed to grim reports of extensive coral mortality, confirming our worst fears that the 9 months of continuous ocean warming associated with the largest El Niño event in history had taken their toll. Of the sites affected by the current global bleaching event, Christmas has been in the grip of extreme temperature stress for the most time, by a long shot.

My first dive was shocking. Above water it looked like the same island I’d been visiting for 18 years. But underwater it was a wasteland. As I descended to depth that day, my eyes would see things that my heart and mind couldn’t yet process.

Algae-coated dead coral on my first dive of the expedition, to 30ft on Christmas Island's south reef, April 2, 2016. In this entire view, there is only one small coral still alive - a half bleached/half dead Porites colony in the lower left. Credit:  Kim Cobb.
The reef was almost completely dead, with all but a few of the hardiest Porites colonies – mostly the smallest size class – coated in red/brown algae. These corals had lost their valiant battle against the elevated ocean temperatures months ago, most likely. I busied myself with the task at hand, retrieving a Conductivity-Temperature-Depth unit off the reef, swapping out the smaller package of sensors we’d co-located with the CTD, taking momentary solace in the fact that the instruments were still intact on the reef. Aside from their huge cost, their memory banks would tell us exactly how warm it had been on the reef in the preceding six months, across the peak of the event. It would have been a crippling loss, scientifically, had they been washed away. We have been swapping in new CTD units at this site since 2014, amassing one the longest, most detailed records of ocean conditions in this region.
The Conductivity-Temperature-Depth sensor after recording ambient 
conditions on the reef from Nov 2015 until April 2016, surrounded by 
dead coral.  Credit:  Kim Cobb.

My mind still reeling from that first dive, I was sure my second dive would be better. We were diving a site that I have visited on every single field expedition I’ve ever conducted, where the largest Porites coral colonies grow. These colonies are decades old, rising 1m or more off the floor of the reef, locking a remarkably accurate history of ocean temperatures in their skeletons. I had drilled one such colony for the TV documentary “Years ofLiving Dangerously”, wielding a huge hydraulic drill in the glare of two underwater cameras.

When I jumped in the water, it was clear my optimism was misplaced. The reef I knew like the back of my hand was unrecognizable. Of the five larger Porites colonies I had tagged and photographed in November – all still alive at that point, if not bleached – four were completely dead, and one was partially dead, hanging on by a thread. I was so overcome with emotion that I shed a few tears into my mask.

I took some time to swim the reef, taking in the destruction. Pocillopora:  all dead. Favia:  all dead. Montipora:  all dead.  In fact, the only things that seemed to be alive and well were, once again, smaller colonies of Porites averaging well under 1ft in diameter. Every good story needs a hero, and these corals were just that. It was as if nobody had told them that a record-breaking El Nino was still underway. My eyes were repeatedly drawn to these small pockets of color on the reef, while my science brain kicked into overdrive planning new science around these stalwart survivors. I would go on to tag and photograph these individuals, and collect small tissues samples that Danielle Claar, from the Baum lab, will sequence in the hopes of uncovering the secret to their unlikely survival.

When we return to the reef later this year, I will take small drill cores from these survivors, in order to document the story of this El Niño event from the perspective of the corals by analyzing the geochemical variations in their newly-laid skeletons. Such samples will allow me to make an apples-to-apples comparison to coral records of past mega-El Niño events, like the 1997/98 event, and to mega-El Niño events of the past centuries to millennia. And by comparing recent El Nino activity in the coral record against a long baseline of natural variability in older coral records, we hope to understand if and how climate change is affecting extremes in the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. Our preliminary results, published before the onset of this winter’s record-breaking event, suggest that El Nino events have become stronger as a result of anthropogenic climate change (see article here).

I hope that the reefs at Christmas Island have the time they need to recover before the next big El Niño hits. It will take ten years or more for the reef to crawl back to even a shadow of its former self. Over this period, we will document its recovery in detail, as an opportunity to learn more about life after death for a reef crippled by temperature stress.

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    Helen Truong is my name from 1731 Hilltop Haven Drive, Red Bank, NJ 07701 USA. It lifts my heart to actually use this medium to save innocent people who would have fallen into the wrong hands in quest to obtain an online loan. With all humility I want to personally warn all online loan seekers to be very careful while trying to get a loan, because it is no news that scammers are rampant everywhere all over the internet claiming to offer loan. I was a victim before now and I solemnly hope that you are a victor if you care to take my word of advise. Few months ago I was financially strained, and due to my desperation I was scammed by several online lenders. All hope was nearly lost until a co-employee suggested 'JOSH LOANS FINANCIAL SERVICE' an online reliable and trustworthy lender for me, as I was almost at the edge of taking my life considering a loss of about $83,000; As God would have it, I applied for a loan from 'Josh Loans Financial Service' under Cynthia's (co-employee) recommendation and WOW in less than 72 working hours I got a credit alert confirming that my account has been credited with the loan fund of $220,000.00 which i originally requested. If after loosing much God has shown me light with the help of 'JOSH LOANS FINANCIAL SERVICE', you too without doubt can as well obtain a loan from this reputable lending institution. IN ALL, if you, your relation or any closed person desperately need a loan, DO CONTACT or help that soul to communicate with JOSH LOANS FINANCIAL SERVICE via email on joshloancompany@gmail.com OR text/call them on +1(215)-874-8060; or preferably fill the loan application on their auxiliary webpage on http://www.joshloancompany.bravesites.com/

    ReplyDelete

  37. Good day,
    Please contact me if you need loan or financial assistant of 2% interest rate via the email below
    divinetorchmicrofunds001@gmail.com or divinetorchmicrofunds@outlook.com i will be of good help.Thanks and God bless you.


    WE OFFER ALL KINDS OF LOANS - APPLY FOR AFFORDABLE LOANS.

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    Momodu Mustapha

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  38. Good Day Everyone,
    We are Christian Organization formed to help people in needs of helps,such as financial help.So if you are going through financial difficulty or you are in any financial mess,and you need funds to start up your own business,or you need loan to settle your debt or pay off your bills,start a nice business, or you are finding it hard to obtain capital loan from local banks,contact us today via email barbarahodgeloanfirm@gmail.com. for the bible says””Luke 11:10 Everyone who asks receives; he who seeks finds; and to him who knocks, the door will be opened”.So do not let these opportunity pass you by because Jesus is the same yesterday, today and forever more.Please these is for serious minded and God fearing People.
    via email barbarahodgeloanfirm@gmail.com.

    Our Services Include the Following:
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    Loan Application Form:

    * Name of Applicant:
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    EMPLOYMENT:

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    Monday-Saturday:7:30am-6:30pm {Processing time}.
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    After submitting the Loan Application, you can expect a preliminary answer less than 24 hours and funding within 72-96 hours of receiving the information we need from you.

    BARBAR HODGE

    barbarahodgeloanfirm@gmail.com or text or call us on +15017229938
    Awaiting your swift reply.

    ReplyDelete
  39. DO YOU NEED AN URGENT LOAN TO SET UP A BUSINESS,IF YES CONTACT US VIA EMAIL:MISSGOMESSLOANCOMPANY05@GMAIL.COM

    ReplyDelete
  40. Hello, i am Mr john williams ,
    a private loan lender who
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    ReplyDelete
  41. We give out loans funding to any part of the world. We offer all kinds and
    types of loans/funding with a comfortable repayment scheme, Our Loan Interest rates is 3% per annul with a negotiable duration, Irrespective of Location or credit status, To get a Loan today
    daveephilip1@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  42. Good day,
    Leslie Fannin is my name am an origin of Brazil but nationalizes in Dallas Texas USA. As a single mom with three kids it was had to get a job that could take care of me and my kids and I had so much bills to pay and to make it worst I had bad credit so i couldn't obtain a loan from any bank. I had an ideal to start a business as an hair stylist but had no capital to start, Tried all type of banks but didn't work out until I was going through the internet and I saw a post advertising to give a loan at a rate of 2% interest in Steakley Financial Services. I sent them a mail using their official email address steakleyfinancialservices@yahoo.com and I got a reply immediately and my loan was approved. To cut it short am a proud on of my hair stylist company today making money for my family and a happy mom. If you need a loan I mean any loan just sent an email to Steakley Financial Services at their official email address : steakleyfinancialservices@yahoo.com.

    ReplyDelete
  43. DO YOU NEED AN AFFORDABLE LOAN TODAY?

    We have provided over $1 Billion in business loans to over 15,000 business owners just like you. We use our own designated risk technology to provide you with the right business loan so you can grow your business. Our services are fast and reliable, loans are approved within 24 hours of successful application. We offer loans from a minimum range of $5,000 to a maximum of $500 million.

    Do you find yourself in a bit of trouble with unpaid bills and don’t know which way to go or where to turn? What about finding a reputable Debt Consolidation firm that can assist you in reducing monthly installment so that you will have affordable repayment options as well as room to breathe when it comes to the end of the month and bills need to get paid? Dr. Mark Richards Loan Home is the answer. Reduce your payments to ease the strain on your monthly expenses, Email (Richarsonprivateloanscompany@californiamail.com)

    DO YOU NEED 100% FINANCE? we give out loans with an affordable interest rate of 2%
    MARK RICHARDS LOAN HOME,(Richarsonprivateloanscompany@californiamail.com) aims is to provide Excellent Professional Financial Services.

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    ReplyDelete
  44. This post reflects the potential of the writer and the depth of his creative skill.
    Send Flowers To Japan

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  45. We are Ireland based major/Direct providers of Fresh Cut BG, SBLC, POF, MTN, Bonds and CDs and this financial instruments are specifically for lease and sale.We are one of the leading Financial instrument providers with offices all over Europe.
    we always deliver on time and precision as Set forth in the agreement. You are at liberty to engage our leased facilities into trade programs, project financing, Credit line enhancement, Corporate Loans (Business Start-up Loans or Business Expansion Loans), Equipment Procurement Loans (Industrial Equipment, Air crafts, Ships, etc.) as well as other financial instruments issued from AAA Rated bank such as HSBC Bank Hong Kong, HSBC Bank London, Deutsche Bank AG Frankfurt, Barclays Bank , Standard Chartered Bank and others on lease at the lowest available rates depending on the face value of the instrument needed, Our Terms and Conditions are reasonable.
    DESCRIPTION OF INSTRUMENTS:
    1. Instrument: Bank Guarantee (BG)/SBLC (Appendix A)
    2. Total Face Value: 10M MIN to 50B MAX USD or Euro
    3. Issuing Bank: HSBC, Deutsche Bank Frankfurt, UBS or any Top 25 .
    4. Age: One Year, One Day
    5. Leasing Price: 4+ 2%
    6. Sale Price: 32+2%
    7. Delivery by SWIFT .
    8. Payment: MT103-23
    9. Hard Copy: Bonded Courier within 7 banking days.
    If you have need for Corporate loans, International project funding, etc. or if you have a client that requires funding for his project or business, We are also affiliated with lenders who specialize on funding against financial instruments, such as BG, SBLC, POF or MTN, we fund 100% of the face value of the financial instrument.
    Inquiries from agents/ brokers/ intermediaries are also welcomed; do get back to us if you are interested in any of our services and for quality service.
    Name : Ciaran Sheridan
    E-mail : ciaransheridan453@gmail.com
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    ReplyDelete
  46. I am Judy Parker single Mother from Houston here in Texas when I was in need of a loan I apply through my bank but was deny cos of my credit score then someone refer me on this site to Ramsy Dave Loan Company and I apply for a loan with them and was approved without credit check and low interest rate of 3% and there was no cosigner, You can reach them with this email if you need a loan I am sure they can still help you ramsedave121@gmail.com

    Judy Parker

    ReplyDelete